Blood, Blood groups and Blood types.

Blood is a bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. When it reaches the lungs, gas exchange occurs when carbon dioxide is diffused out of the blood into the alveoli and oxygen is diffused into the blood. This oxygenated blood is pumped to the left hand side of the heart in the pulmonary vein and enters the left atrium. From here it passes through the bicuspid valve, through the ventricle and taken all around the body by the aorta. Blood contains antibodies, nutrients, oxygen and lots more to help the body work.

In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[1] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes) and white blood cells, including leukocytes and platelets. The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates oxygen transport by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood. In contrast, carbon dioxide is almost entirely transported extracellularly dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ion.

Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated. Jawed vertebrates have an adaptive immune system, based largely on white blood cells. White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites. Platelets are important in the clotting of blood. Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system. Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart.

Medical terms related to blood often begin with hemo- or hemato- (also spelled haemo- and haemato-) from the Greek word αîμα (haima) for "blood". In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen.

Blood Groups

Thirty-three major blood group systems (including the AB and Rh systems) were recognised by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) in October 2012.[1] In addition to the ABO antigens and Rhesus antigens, many other antigens are expressed on the red blood cell surface membrane. For example, an individual can be AB RhD positive, and at the same time M and N positive (MNS system), K positive (Kell system), and Lea or Leb positive (Lewis system). Many of the blood group systems were named after the patients in whom the corresponding antibodies were initially encountered.

The ISBT definition of a blood group system is where one or more antigens are "controlled at a single gene locus or by two or more very closely linked homologous genes with little or no observable recombination between them".

Blood grouping postulates

Blood is composed of cells suspended in a liquid-like substance called plasma. Suspended in the plasma are three types of cells:

The most common type of grouping is the ABO (either uppercase or lowercase) grouping. The varieties of glycoprotein coating on red blood cells divides blood into four groups:

  • A (A oligosaccharide is present)
  • B (B oligosaccharide is present)
  • AB (A and B oligosaccharides are present)
  • O (neither A nor B, only their precursor H oligosaccharide present)

There are subtypes under this grouping (listed as A1, A2, A1B or A2B…) some of which are quite rare. Apart from this there is a protein which plays an important part in the grouping of blood. This is called the Rh factor. If this is present, the particular blood type is called positive. If it is absent, it is called negative. Thus we have the following broad categories:

  • A1 Negative (A1 -ve)
  • A1 Positive (A1 +ve)
  • A1B Negative (A1B -ve)
  • A1B Positive (A1B +ve)
  • A2 Negative (A2 -ve)
  • A2 Positive (A2 +ve)
  • A2B Negative (A2B -ve)
  • A2B Positive (A2B +ve)
  • B Negative (B -ve)
  • B Positive (B +ve)
  • B1 Positive (B1 +ve)
  • O Negative (O -ve)
  • O Positive (O +ve)

Rare blood types

In the "ABO" system, (and Rhesus D system) all blood belongs to one of four major groups: A+/-, B+/-, AB+/-, or O+/-. The presence (+) or absence (-) of the RhD (Rhesus D) antigen is indicated by the plus or minus following the ABO type. But there are more than two hundred minor blood groups that can complicate blood transfusions. These are known as rare blood types. Whereas common blood types are expressed in a letter or two, which maybe a plus or a minus, a smaller number of people express their blood type in an extensive series of letters in addition to their 'AB-' type designation.